Aristotle’s De Interpretatione 16 a 3-8 describes the relationship between writing, words, meanings, and things. Christian and Jewish interpreters took different approaches to interpreting this passage. Scholastic thinkers tended to examine the differences between meanings and the meaning of meanings, or first-second intentions, and this terminology is even reflected in William of Luna’s translation of Averroes’ Millde Commentary on this passage. The 14th c. Jewish interpreters, who relied on Jacob Anatoli’s 13th c. translation of Averroe’s Middle Commentary, tended not to find the first-second intention distinction in De Interpretatione 16 a 3-8, and instead took Averroes’ account of meaning at face value. This changed in the 15th c. when Jewish thinkers began to engage more directly and more significantly with Latin scholastic works, and began to interpret Aristotle accordingly.