Research Group

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Avi Ravitzki

FELLOW
The Hebrew University of Jerusalem
Avi is a professor in the Department of Jewish Thought at The Hebrew University of Jerusalem.
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Meir Litvak

FELLOW
Tel Aviv University
Israel is a professor in the Department of Middle Eastern and African History at Tel Aviv University.
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Israel Gershoni

FELLOW
Tel Aviv University
Israel is a professor in the Department of Middle Eastern and African History at Tel Aviv University.
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Yagnik Achyut

FELLOW
Setu Center for Social Knowledge and Action
Yagnik is a professor at the Setu Center for Social Knowledge and Action.

Religion and Nationalism in the Jewish, Christian, Muslim and Hindu Worlds

[RG #102] Religion and Nationalism in Jewish, Christian, Muslim and Hindu Worlds

September 1, 2005 - February 28, 2006

Organizers:

Hedva Ben-Israel (The Hebrew University of Jerusalem)
Yosef Salmon (Ben-Gurion University of the Negev)
Emmanuel Sivan (The Hebrew University of Jerusalem)

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Nationalism is one of the prominent subjects in scholarly discourse. There is a great deal of disagreement over its origins, essence, impact and degree of historical "naturalness", as well as its connection with religion. This relationship is riddled with paradox. Nationalism and religion appear sometimes as related and sometimes as opposed forces. Many historians and social scientists tend to see nationalism as a modern, political and secular phenomenon prompted by social and economic conditions that could emerge only after the decline of religion and as a substitute for it. Our choice of subject was prompted partly by the academic controversy and partly by contemporary cases where nationalist fervor and religious devotion are found together. It is also apparent that more historians are finding that in the past, too, many cases of nationalism were allied with religion or inspired by it. The purpose of our group is to compare the role of the three monotheistic religions and Hinduism in different cases of nationalism.

 

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David Sklare

FELLOW
Ben-Zvi Institute
David is a professor in the Ben-Zvi Institute for the Study of Jewish Communities in the East, Jerusalem.
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Wilferd Madelung

FELLOW
University of Oxford
Wilferd is a professor in the Oriental Institute at the University of Oxford.
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Bruno Chiesa

FELLOW
University of Torino
Bruno is a professor in the Department of Oriental Studies at the University of Torino.
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Haggai Ben-Shammai

FELLOW
The Hebrew University of Jerusalem
Haggai is a professor in the Department of Arabic Language and Literature at The Hebrew University of Jerusalem.
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Sarah Stroumsa

FELLOW
The Hebrew University of Jerusalem
Sarah is a professor in the Department of Arabic Language and Literature at The Hebrew University of Jerusalem.
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Sabine Schmidtke

FELLOW
Free University of Berlin
Sabine is a professor in the Institute for Islamic Studies at the Free University of Berlin.
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Camilla Adang

FELLOW
Tel Aviv University
Camilla is a professor in the Department of Arabic and Islamic Studies at Tel Aviv University.

Muʿtazilism within Islam and Judaism

[RG #101] Muʿtazilism within Islam and Judaism

September 1, 2005 - August 31, 2006

Organizers:

Wilferd Madelung (University of Oxford)
Sabine Schmidtke (Free University of Berlin)

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The Muʿtazila was a rationalist school of Islamic theology and one of the important currents of Islamic thought. Muʿtazilīs stressed the primacy of reason and free will and maintained that good and evil can be known solely through human reason. The beginnings of the Muʿtazila were in the 8th century, and their classic period of development was from the 9th until the middle of the 11th century. While it briefly enjoyed the status of an official theology, over the centuries the Muʿtazila fell out of favour in Sunnī Islam and had largely disappeared by the 14th century. Their influence, however, continued to be felt in two groups: Shīʿī Islam and Karaite Judaism. There has been a trend in the 20th century to revive Muʿtazilī thought, particularly in Egypt. The Neo-Muʿtazilīs are attracted by the Muʿtazilī affirmation of reason and free will, which they see as a basis for intellectual liberty and modernity. Muʿtazilī thought also had a major impact on Jewish theologians, both Rabbanite and Karaite, from the 10th through the 12th centuries.

Muʿtazilī works were evidently not widely copied, and few manuscripts have survived. So little authentic Muʿtazilī literature was available that until the publication of some texts in the 1960s, Muʿtazilī doctrine was known mostly through the works of its opponents. While Muʿtazilī manuscripts have not been preserved in large quantities, most of the material that has survived has not yet been utilized or published. Muʿtazilī manuscripts have survived largely by two means: Yeminite public and private libraries, and the Firkovitch Collections in the Russian National Library in St. Petersburg, which came mostly from the manuscript storeroom of the Karaite synagogue in Cairo. In the early 1950s numerous manuscripts were discovered in Yemen that included the works of various representatives of the Muʿtazilī school of Abū Hāshim al-Jubbāʾī (d.933), the Bahshamiyya, which were subequently edited in Egypt during the 1960s.

The goal of our study group is to examine, identify and edit as many as possible of the Muʿtazilī writings and fragments scattered in the various Muslim and Jewish repositories around the world, in order to broaden our understanding of rational theology in Islam and its reception among Rabbanite and particularly Karaite Jews.

 

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Judith Schlanger

FELLOW
École Pratique des Hautes Études
Judith is a professor in the École Pratique des Hautes Études, Sorbonne.